The following journal articles, listed in reverse chronological order,
discuss TB prevention worldwide as a means of eliminating TB in the United
States, the interaction of HIV/AIDS and TB, and the rise of drug-resistant
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Binkin et al. Tuberculosis
prevention control activities in the United States: an overview of the
organization of tuberculosis services. The International Journal
of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 3(8):663-674, 1999.
The authors review trends and the current epidemiology of TB in the United
States, present a brief history of TB control efforts in the country,
and present the key strategies for TB control in the United States.
toward the elimination of tuberculosis-United States, 1998. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 48(13):732-736, August 27, 1999.
This CDC report summarizes national TB surveillance data for 1998 and
compares them with similar data from previous years. The findings indicate
that the overall number of TB cases continued to decrease, and that trends
in the number of reported cases and TB incidence varied by geographic
area and population characteristics.
Dye et al. Global burden of
tuberculosis. The Journal of the American Medical Association.
282:677-686, August 18, 1999.
The authors estimate risk and prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
infection and TB incidence, prevalence, and mortality for 1997.
Sandiford, P. and M. H. Proctor. WHO's DOTS strategy. Lancet.
353(9154):755, February 29, 1999.
The authors state that TB control programs in the United Kingdom that
focus on the public health sector should also try to improve treatment
provided by private healthcare workers. The authors propose that this
strategy would enable programs to reach and cure more patients.
Behr et al. Transmission of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis from
patients smear-negative for acid-fast bacilli. Lancet. 353(9151):444,
February 6, 1999.
This journal article discusses data from an ongoing study of the molecular
epidemiology of TB in San Francisco. The data indicate that TB transmission
there is due about 17 percent of the time to patients with smear-negative,
culture-positive TB. The authors note that patients with negative smears
should not be considered noninfectious.
outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates-California,
1995-1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 48(4), February
This CDC report discusses the results of an investigation by the departments
of corrections and health services in California into two TB outbreaks
that occurred in the HIV units of state prisons and spread to the community.
It focuses on the new procedures developed to prevent similar future outbreaks.
Havlir, D. V. and P. F. Barnes. Current
Concepts: Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
New England Journal of Medicine. 340(5):367, February 4, 1999.
This research indicates that, when exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
patients living with HIV/AIDS produce less interferon-gamma than do HIV-negative
patients with TB, suggesting that reduced T1 lymphocyte response, which
produces the interferon, contributes to susceptibility to TB.
Gasner et al. The
use of legal action in New York City to ensure treatment of tuberculosis.
New England Journal of Medicine. 340(5):359, February 4, 1999.
The authors evaluate the 1993 regulations passed by New York City under
which the health commissioner can compel a person to be examined for TB
and to receive direct observation treatment (DOT). Of 8,000 cases of TB
treated between April 1993 and April 1995, only 150 patients were required
to undergo DOT. The authors conclude that most patients, even those with
severe social problems, can complete treatment without regulatory intervention.
Mangura, B. T. and L. B. Reichman. Periodic chest radiography: unnecessary,
expensive, but still pervasive. Lancet. 353(9149):319, January
This article asserts that periodic chest radiography is neither cost-effective
nor necessary for TB control.
Villarino et al. Comparable specificity of two commercial tuberculin
reagents in persons at low risk for tuberculosis infection. Journal
of the American Medical Association. 281(2):169, January 13, 1999.
CDC and other researchers compared reaction size and specificity of skin
testing using the commercial tuberculin skin test reagents Aplisol and
Tubersol with the standard purified protein derivative (PPD-S1) in 1,555
patients at low risk for latent TB infection. They found that all the
tests produced similar results. The authors conclude that Aplisol and
Tubersol will correctly classify comparable numbers of persons not infected
M. tuberculosis and that the product choice used for skin testing
has little effect on test performance.
Uplekar et al. Directly observed treatment for tuberculosis. Lancet.
353(9147):145, January 9, 1999.
The authors assert that a recent study from the Center for Epidemiological
Research in Southern Africa shows that in the promotion of DOT other methods
of TB control should not be overlooked. The study found that, in field
conditions, DOT did not offer any improvement over self-supervision.
Weis et al. Universal HIV screening at a major metropolitan TB clinic:
HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviors among TB patients. American
Journal of Public Health. 89(1):73, January 1999.
This journal article discusses the outcome of universal HIV screening
at a public TB clinic in Fort Worth, Texas. The authors conclude that
the metropolitan TB clinic is useful for HIV screening and that all TB
patients should have access to HIV-antibody testing and counseling.
Lobato, M. N. and P. C. Hopewell. Mycobacterium
infection after travel to or contact with visitors from countries with
a high prevalence of tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine. 158(6):1871, December 1998.
This journal article discusses the findings that children who have traveled
to countries with high TB rates or who have received visitors from those
countries are at increased risk for positive skin tests. The authors suggest
that TB control programs should investigate travel and household visitors
in their analysis of children with positive skin tests for TB, and that
children who have traveled to or had visitors from high-prevalence areas
should be considered for testing.
Moss, W. Tuberculosis in the home: contact history and childhood
tuberculosis in Central Harlem. Clinical Pediatrics. 37(12):753,
This article discusses the contact history of childhood cases of TB in
Central Harlem, New York City. The author concludes that contact tracing
and instituting preventive therapy were inadequate in preventing childhood
TB in this group and suggests identifying and treating adult source cases
would help prevent the spread of the disease in children.
Hennessey et al. Tuberculin skin test screening practices among U.
S. colleges and universities. Journal of the American Medical Association
Online. 280(23):2008, December 16, 1998.
This journal article discusses a study of 624 U.S. colleges and universities,
which found that 378 schools required tuberculin screening. The authors
suggest that public health resources could be optimized through the selective
screening of high-risk students.
Dye et al. Prospects for worldwide tuberculosis control under the
WHO DOTS strategy. Lancet. 352(9144):1886, December 12, 1998.
This journal article discusses the results of an age-structured mathematical
model to determine the effects of directly observed treatment, short-course
(DOTS) on worldwide TB rates. The authors estimate that, if action isn't
taken to curb the disease, the annual incidence of TB will increase by
41 percent by the year 2020. They recommend improved diagnostic techniques,
drugs, and therapy, coupled with targeted preventive therapy.
New TB guidelines. Journal of the American Medical Association
Online. 280(20):1735, November 25, 1998.
This article presents new TB guidelines released by the American College
of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Stephenson, M. Appropriate antibiotic use key to preventing spread
of pertussis and TB. Infectious Diseases in Children. 11(10):30,
This article indicates that children under two and adolescents are at
greatest risk for progression from TB infection to TB disease, although
progression is rare in the majority of cases. A minimum of six months
therapy is recommended for all children exposed to or infected with TB.
Zwarenstein et al. Randomised controlled trial of self-supervised
and directly observed treatment of tuberculosis. Lancet. 52(9137):1340,
October 24, 1998.
This journal article discusses the results of a South African study of
216 adults starting pulmonary TB treatment for the first time or being
retreated to determine whether directly observed treatment improves completion
and outcome of therapy.
Berthet et al. Attenuation
of virulence by disruption of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis erp gene.
Science. 282(5389):759-62, October 23, 1998.
The virulence of TB-causing mycobacteria depends on their ability to multiply
in mammalian hosts. Disruption of the bacterial erp gene, which encodes
the exported repetitive protein, impaired multiplication of
M. tuberculosis and M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin in cultured
macrophages and mice. Reintroduction of erp into the mutants restored
their ability to multiply, indicating that erp contributes to the virulence
proves potent against infections. AIDS Alert-International.
13(10):2, October 1998.
This article discusses the results of a study by CDC and Ivory Coast researchers
about cotrimoxazole's role as a safe and relatively inexpensive treatment
against opportunistic infections, cutting illness and death by half among
patients coinfected with AIDS and TB. The drug is already used in the
U.S. and other industrialized countries to treat Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia. The study found that the medication cut deaths by 48 percent
and reduced hospitalizations by 44 percent.
Griffith, D. E. Tuberculosis
control is a team sport. Chest Online. 114(3), September 1998.
This journal article discusses TB control, asserting that TB specialists
are the key to effective control of the disease. The author states that
although new CDC guidelines have helped reduce the risk of TB among healthcare
workers, the decrease is also the result of extensive TB education for
multi-drug resistant tuberculosis-Buenaventura, Columbia, 1998. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 47(36), September 18, 1998.
This article presents the findings of the first investigation of multi-drug
resistant TB in Columbia, which found high rates of drug resistance among
TB patients who had a history of treatment for an average of 3.5 years.
Castro, K. G. Global
tuberculosis challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases Online.
4(3), July-September 1998.
This article discusses the epidemiology of global TB using information
from 212 countries and data derived from a survey of anti-TB drug resistance
in 32 nations.
McKenna et al. The fall after the rise: tuberculosis in the United
States, 1991 through 1994. American Journal of Public Health. 88(7):1059,
CDC researchers report that recent TB epidemiology patterns in the United
States indicate improvement in TB treatment and control, based on a decrease
between the number of TB cases reported in 1991 and 1992 and the number
of cases reported in 1993 and 1994. The decrease was limited to U.S.-born
patients and associated with completion of therapy, conversion of sputum,
increases in contacts identified per case, and AIDS incidence.
Bayer et al. Directly observed therapy and treatment completion for
tuberculosis in the United States: is universal supervised therapy necessary?
American Journal of Public Health. 88(7):1052, July 1998.
This article discusses a study of Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) programs
in the U.S. between 1990 and 1994. The researchers found that the therapy
had a significant effect on improving treatment programs with a traditionally
low completion rate, and concluded that a completion rate of 90 percent
can be achieved without universal supervision therapy.
Pablos-Mendez et al. Global
surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistances, 1994-1997. New
England Journal of Medicine. 338(23):1641, June 4, 1998.
This article discusses research surveying drug resistance to four first-line
antituberculosis drugs in 35 countries between 1994 and 1997. The authors
found that among patients with no prior treatment a median of 9.9 percent
of M. tuberculosis strains were resistant to at least one drug.
Optimize AIDS surveillance by sharing databases. AIDS Alert.
13(6):67, June 1998.
This article examines a two-year New York City project that combined the
city health department's AIDS and tuberculosis databases, optimizing epidemiological
information for both diseases. During this project, 700 unknown cases
of HIV and TB co-infection were discovered. Linking the databases provided
more accurate epidemiological information, which states may find cost-effective.
Reporting of co-infection still limited. AIDS Alert. 13(6):68,
This article focuses on the concern that only 50 percent of cases of TB
in the presence of HIV infection are being reported by health departments.
Health experts are concerned about the high incidence of TB among U.S.
residents born outside of the United States and about the relationship
between HIV and TB.
Tuberculosis morbidity-United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report. 47(13):253-257, April 10, 1998.
This CDC report summarizes national TB surveillance data for 1997 and
compares it with similar data for previous years. The findings indicate
that, although the overall number of TB cases continued to decrease, the
numbers of reported cases differed by geographic area and population characteristics.
Chaulk, C. P. and V. A. Kazandjian. Directly observed therapy for
treatment completion of pulmonary tuberculosis. Journal of the American
Medical Association. 279(12):943, March 25, 1998.
This article discusses the findings of the Public Health Tuberculosis
Guidelines Panel about the relative efficacy of directly observed therapy
(DOT) for treatment completion of pulmonary TB. The panel's recommendations
are that DOT be used to ensure adequate completion of TB treatment and
that timely case identification, associate and contact investigations,
and effective prevention programs for high-risk populations also are critical
ingredients for successful TB control.
Stephenson J. TB prophylaxis and HIV. Journal of the American Medical
Association. 279(11):818, March 18, 1998.
This journal article discusses the results of a study of nearly 1,600
patients in four nations who are co-infected with M. tuberculosis and
HIV who were either on short-course therapy or a longer regimen. The study
determined that patients were more likely to complete the short-course
therapy, which was as safe and effective as the longer regimen.
Valway et al. An outbreak involving extensive transmission of a virulent
strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. New England Journal of Medicine.
338(10):633, March 5, 1998.
This article focuses on a CDC study of an outbreak from 1994 to 1996 of
a virulent strain of tuberculosis in rural communities in two counties
in Tennessee and Kentucky.
Heymann, S. J., R. Sell and T. F. Brewer. The influence of program
acceptability on the effectiveness of public health policy: A study of
directly observed therapy for tuberculosis. American Journal of Public
Health. 88(3):442, March 1998.
This journal article focuses on the relationship between directly observed
therapy and successful completion of therapy in patients with TB.
Ostroff, S. M. and P. Kozarsky. Emerging infectious diseases and travel
medicine. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 12(1):231-41,
This journal article discuses the relationship between travel and emerging
infectious diseases, including TB. Global travel of individuals, populations,
and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence
and re-emergence of infectious diseases.
Carroll, D. Short-course TB prophylaxis effective in HIV-infected
individuals. NIAID News. February 11, 1998.
This article discusses the results of an international study, sponsored
by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the CDC,
and the Pan American Health Organization, which indicates that a two-month,
short-course therapy provides an effective alternative to the current
year-long treatment for patients co-infected with HIV and TB.
Stephenson M. Tuberculin skin testing in children not important in
low-risk cases. Infectious Diseases in Children. 11(2):13, February
This article explains that tuberculin skin tests for children at low risk
of infection have not proven effective and may even be harmful due to
a high rate of false positive results.
Wenzel, R. P. and M. B. Edmond. Tuberculosis infection after bronchoscopy.
Journal of the American Medical Association. 278(13):1111, October
This opinion piece asserts that implementation and monitoring of adequate
guidelines for bronchoscope cleaning and disinfection are essential to
the control of TB in the United States.
Whalen et al. A trial of three regimens to prevent tuberculosis in
Ugandan adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. New
England Journal of Medicine. 337(12):801, September 18, 1997.
This journal article discusses the results of a study of more than 2,700
HIV-positive Ugandan adults. The authors found that six months of isoniazid
therapy reduced by 67 percent the risk of TB in HIV-positive adults who
also tested positive for purified protein derivative-at least in the short
Moore et al. Trends in drug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States,
1993-1996. Journal of the American Medical Association. 278(10):833,
September 10, 1997.
This journal article analyzes data collected between 1993 and 1996 that
indicate that resistance to TB-fighting drugs in the United States remains
a serious public health concern.
Singleton et al. Long-term hospitalization for tuberculosis control.
Journal of the American Medical Association. 278(10):838, September
Statistics from this study of inpatient TB treatment in Massachusetts
show success in treating patients with complicated medical histories,
including multi-drug resistant TB, HIV infection, and injection drug use.
The authors conclude that long-term hospitalization is a necessary component
of a comprehensive TB control program that individualizes TB treatment
and applies the least restrictive means to complete treatment.
Oscherwitz et al. Detention of persistently nonadherent patients with
tuberculosis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 278(10):843,
September 10, 1997.
This journal article analyzes attempts to detain 67 TB patients who were
chronically nonadherent to treatment in 12 California counties and reflects
the difficulty of providing treatment to such individuals.
Moreno et al. Isoniazid preventive therapy in human immunodeficiency
virus-infected persons. Archives of Internal Medicine. 157(15):1729,
August 11, 1997.
This journal article discusses the long-term benefits of isoniazid prophylaxis
in patients co-infected with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis morbidity-United States, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report. 46(30):695, August 1, 1997.
This article reports that between 1995 and 1996 the number of TB cases
in the United States declined. When this article was published, this number
was the lowest it had been since data were first collected in 1953. Despite
this reduction, there were still more TB cases than called for under the
goal of elimination by 2010.
Gordin et al. A controlled trial of isoniazid in persons with anergy
and human immunodeficiency virus infection who are at high risk for tuberculosis.
New England Journal of Medicine. 337(5):315, July 31, 1997.
This article discusses the findings of a study between 1991 and 1996 of
more than 500 HIV-infected patients at risk for TB to determine the efficacy
of six months of isoniazid prophylaxis.
Zuber et al. Long-term risk of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons
in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association.
278(4):304, July 23-July 30, 1997.
This article discusses CDC reports that the majority of TB cases among
foreign-born persons in the U.S. can be attributed to imported Mycobacterium
TB infection. The detection of active TB should be a primary focus
in foreign-born populations in the U.S., and greater action against TB
worldwide is necessary to eliminate TB in the U.S.
Cookson, S. T. and W. R. Jarvis. Prevention of nosocomial transmission
of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infectious Disease Clinic of North America.
11(2):385-409, June 1997.
This article discusses the increased risk of nosocomial and occupational
transmission of infectious M. tuberculosis due to the recent resurgence
of TB and the ongoing HIV epidemic.
Performance evaluation programs for determining HIV-1 viral loads,
testing for HIV p24 antigen, and identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis
using nucleic acid amplification tests. Journal of the American Medical
Association. 277(10):76, March 12, 1997.
This article discusses CDC programs to evaluate the performance of laboratories
that do viral load testing for HIV, HIV antigen p24 testing, and TB nucleic
acid amplification testing.
Brewer et al. Evaluation of tuberculosis control policies using computer
simulation. Journal of the American Medical Association. 276(23):1898,
December 18, 1996.
This article discusses a computer simulation model used to project the
impact of five TB control measures, including a BCG vaccine program, more
effective preventive therapy, more effective treatment, and wider use
Moser et al. Characteristics of foreign-born Hispanic patients with
tuberculosis-eight U.S. counties bordering Mexico, 1995. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 45(47):1032, November 29, 1996.
In this article, the authors study the immigration patterns of Hispanic
foreign-born TB patients in the United States and compare drug resistance
rates among these patients with drug resistance rates among U.S.-born
non-Hispanic patients now living in the same regions of the United States.
The authors conclude that TB surveillance efforts should be increased
in non-border regions of Mexico.
Clinical update: impact of HIV protease inhibitors on the treatment
of HIV-infected tuberculosis patients with rifampin. Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report. 45(42):921-925, October 25, 1996.
This CDC report describes approaches for managing patients who are candidates
for or who are undergoing protease inhibitor therapy when TB is diagnosed.
It presents interim recommendations for managing these patients until
additional data are available and formal guidelines issued.
Frieden et al. A multi-institutional outbreak of highly drug-resistant
tuberculosis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 276(15):1229,
October 15, 1996.
This study features an analysis of every case of TB strain W-a multi-drug
resistant strain-in New York City between 1990 and 1993, the likely location
of transmission, and the clinical outcome of each case.
Bradford, W. Z., J. N. Martin and A. L. Reingold. The changing epidemiology
of acquired drug-resistant tuberculosis in San Francisco, USA. Lancet.
348(9032):928, October 5, 1996.
This journal article examines TB drug resistance in San Francisco, a city
that has had an effective TB control program. Examining all reported TB
cases in San Francisco between 1985 and 1994, the authors associate TB
drug resistance with AIDS, non-compliance with therapy, and gastrointestinal
symptoms. They conclude that the increasing prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection
can be attributed to the increase in acquired drug resistance in San Francisco.
Blower, S.M., P. M. Small and P. C. Hopewell. Control strategies for
tuberculosis epidemics: new models for old problems. Science. 273(5274):497,
July 26, 1996.
This article presents a theoretical framework for designing effective
TB control strategies and for determining treatment levels to eradicate
TB. Using a mathematical model that estimates the disease's pathogenesis
and incorporating the population level effects of chemoprophylaxis and
treatment, the authors conclude that to control TB, treatment failure
rates must be lower in developing countries than in industrialized countries.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak on an HIV Ward-Madrid, Spain,
1991-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 45(16):330-3,
April 26, 1996.
This CDC report summarizes the findings of an investigation into nosocomial
transmission of multidrug-resistant TB on an HIV ward in Madrid.
Kenyon et al. Transmission of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium
tuberculosis during a long airplane flight. New England Journal
of Medicine. 334(15):933, April 11, 1996.
This journal article discusses a study by CDC researchers into an incident
in which passengers and flight crew were exposed to infectious multi-drug
resistant TB by a passenger who traveled from Honolulu to Chicago and
from Chicago to Baltimore in April and back in May 1994.
Friedman et al. Tuberculosis, AIDS, and death among substance abusers
on welfare in New York City. New England Journal of Medicine. 334(13):828,
March 28, 1996.
Based on a New York City study of 858 welfare recipients who abused drugs
or alcohol, this article reports on the relationship of these characteristics
to the subjects' tendency to become infected with TB and/or HIV. The authors
conclude that for AIDS and TB programs to be effective among indigent
substance abusers, health services must be integrated into welfare delivery.
Surveillance of tuberculosis and AIDS co-morbidity-Florida, 1981-1993.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 45(2):38-41, January 19,
This CDC report summarizes an analysis of the AIDS and TB registry match
conducted by the Florida Health and Rehabilitative Services Department
to evaluate the quality of AIDS and TB surveillance data and to enhance
completeness of reporting for both surveillance systems.
Kelly-Rossini, L., D. C. Perlman and D. J. Mason. The experience of
respiratory isolation for HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis. Journal
of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 7(1):29, January-February
This journal article discusses a New York City study of the feelings and
coping methods of TB patients who were isolated for treatment.
Tuberculosis among foreign-born persons who had recently arrived in
the United States-Hawaii, 1992-1993, and Los Angeles County, 1993. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 44(38):703-707, September 29, 1995.
This CDC report summarizes a review of foreign-born persons in whom TB
was diagnosed in Hawaii between 1992 and 1993 and in Los Angeles County
during 1993. It assesses the impact of TB screening on foreign-born persons
residing in the United States for less than one year at the time of diagnosis.
Laboratory practices for diagnosis of tuberculosis-United States,
1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 44(31):587-589, August
This CDC report indicates that for a number of TB cases treatment may
be delayed because at least 54 percent of laboratories testing for TB
must refer culture isolates to another laboratory for complete analysis.
The report summarizes information that laboratories reported to federally
approved proficiency testing programs about the laboratories' practices
for M. tuberculosis.
Wolfe et al. Tuberculosis knowledge among New York City injection
drug users. American Journal of Public Health. 85(7):985, July
This article discusses a study of participants in methadone maintenance
treatment programs and their knowledge of TB.
Chaffee, B. H., S. Moehring and S. Pruden. HIV, sexually transmitted
disease, and tuberculosis testing at community sites in upstate New York.
American Journal of Public Health. 85(6):867, June 1995.
This journal article discusses the principle of taking HIV, TB, and syphilis
screening into the places where people at risk for these infections can
be found. The authors believe that with this strategy they reached more
people than similar clinic-based services would have.
Coincidence of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis-Chicago, 1982-1993. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 44(11):227, March 24, 1995.
This CDC report describes the overall occurrence of TB in Chicago during
1982-1993 and characterizes the co-incidence of TB and HIV/AIDS in Chicago
Exposure of passengers and flight crew to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
on commercial aircraft, 1992-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
44(08):137-140, March 3, 1995.
This report summarizes CDC and state health department investigations
of in-flight exposures to TB and provides guidance about notification
of passengers and flight crew if exposure to TB occurs during commercial
U.S. paying high price for HIV and TB epidemics. AIDS Alert.
10(3):43, March 1995.
This article discusses a national study of hospital costs for treating
HIV and TB, which found that co-infection significantly boosted the morbidity
and cost of healthcare in young adults.
Proportionate mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis associated with
occupations-28 states, 1979-1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
44(01):4-19, January 13, 1995.
This report presents the findings of a study to identify occupations associated
with increased risk for TB mortality.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a hospital-Jersey City, New Jersey,
1990-1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 43(22):417-419,
June 10, 1994.
To characterize the epidemiologic features of persons with drug-resistant
TB, this CDC study compared a New Jersey hospital's rates of drug-resistant
TB with previously reported rates, rates for other New Jersey cities,
and rates for the state.
Epidemiologic notes and reports: expanded tuberculosis surveillance
and tuberculosis morbidity-United States, 1993. Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report. 43(20):361-366, May 27, 1994.
This CDC report summarizes final surveillance data for 1993, compares
findings with previous years, and provides information on expanded surveillance.
Current trends: self-reported tuberculin skin testing among Indian
Health Service and Federal Bureau of Prisons dentists. Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report. 43(11):209-11, March 25, 1994.
Essential to effective TB control in healthcare settings are surveillance
of healthcare workers for TB and assessment of TB transmission through
routine periodic screening with tuberculin skin tests (TSTs). This CDC
report summarizes the data from a survey to characterize the TST practices
of federal dentists.
Estimates of future global tuberculosis morbidity and mortality. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 42(49), December 17, 1993.
The global incidence of TB is expected to increase during the next ten
years because of the interaction between the TB and HIV epidemics. This
report uses TB data collected by the World Health Organization to estimate
the future global impact of TB and to assess HIV's contribution thereto.
Tuberculosis among pregnant women-New York City, 1985-1992. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 42(31):605, 611-612, August 13, 1993.
TB may be an increasing problem among reproductive-aged women. This CDC
report summarizes a study to determine the prevalence of active TB during
pregnancy. The study reviewed medical records of two public hospitals
in New York City from 1985 through 1992.
Outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a hospital. Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report. 42(22), June 11, 1993.
This report summarizes an epidemiologic investigation by hospital infection
control, infectious diseases, and employee services staff into a multidrug-resistant
TB (MDR-TB) outbreak in a New York hospital. While MDR-TB affected 43
of 198 TB patients, this report presents information only for the 32 diagnosed
between 1991 and 1992, of whom 31 had been patients on the HIV ward.
Tuberculosis prevention in drug-treatment centers and correctional
facilities-selected U.S. sites, 1990-1991. Morbidity and Mortality
Weekly Report. 42(11):210-213, March 26, 1993.
This CDC report summarizes the results of a demonstration project during1990-1991
to evaluate the feasibility of onsite screening for TB infection among
clients of drug treatment centers and inmates of correctional facilities.
Probable transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a correctional
facility-California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 42(03):48-51,
January 29, 1993.
This CDC report presents the findings of an investigation into possible
nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant TB from inmates to staff
of a California prison.