The immediate and long-term disease burden and costs associated with STDs globally and in the U.S. are immense. STDs are one of the most critical challenges in the nation today because of their severe and costly consequences for woman and infants, their tremendous impact on the health of adolescents and young adults (especially among minority populations), and the integral role other STDs play in the transmission of HIV infection. Conversely, an investment in STD prevention is leveraged several ways--it improves the health of women, infants, and young people, and slows down the spread of HIV infection in our most vulnerable and disadvantaged populations. In addition to the human costs, STDs add $17 billion dollars to the nation's health care costs each year.
Dangerous and Deadly Consequences
Most Americans are aware of HIV infection and AIDS, the most deadly of all STDs. But, for much of society, the other serious risks related to unsafe sexual behaviors may have been forgotten. There are over 20 diseases that are transmitted sexually. Many have serious and costly consequences.
Some of the most common and serious STDs include:
If not adequately treated, 20-40 percent of women infected with chlamydia and 10-40 percent of women infected with gonorrhea develop upper genital tract infection, also called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Among women with PID, scarring will result in involuntary infertility in 20 percent, potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy in 9 percent, and chronic pelvic pain in 18 percent. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of first trimester pregnancy-related deaths among American women. The ectopic pregnancy rate could be reduced by as much as 50% by early detection and treatment of STDs.
Sexually transmitted HPV is the single most important risk factor for cervical cancer, which was responsible for approximately 5,000 deaths in American women in 1995. Pap smears can identify early signs of cell abnormalities and precancerous conditions. In addition, there are non-cancer-inducing types of HPV that cause genital warts. There are many treatments, but no cures for genital warts. The warts may go away, but the virus remains and others can be infected. There are likely more than 24 million Americans infected with HPV.
Herpes may be the most common STD in the United States. It is estimated that as many as 30 million Americans may now carry the herpes virus. There is no cure, but there are drugs to reduce the pain and length of outbreaks and reduce the likelihood of infecting a sexual partner.
Fetal or neonatal death occurs in up to 40 percent of pregnant women who have untreated syphilis. As many as 40 percent of live-born infants of women with untreated early syphilis suffer irreversible health consequences. The genital sores caused by syphilis in adults make it easier to transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually.
Sixty-four percent of all people diagnosed with AIDS, to date, have died. Exciting new advancements in the treatment of HIV disease, namely combination therapy, appear to increase the quality of and prolong life for people with HIV infection. But we must remember that prevention remains our best and most cost-effective tool for saving lives and bringing the epidemic under control. We cannot lose sight of the ultimate goal of preventing HIV infection, so that people don't have to undergo complex and costly treatment regimens.
Disproportionate Impact on Women, Infants, Young People, and Minorities
Women bear a disproportionate burden of STD-related complications. For women, STDs can lead to PID, infertility, potentially fatal ectopic pregnancies, and cancer of the reproductive tract.
For infants infected by their mothers during gestation or birth, STDs can result in irreparable lifetime damage, including blindness, bone deformities, mental retardation, and death. Most congenital syphilis could be eliminated if all pregnant women had access to prenatal care where syphilis screening and treatment were a standard of care.
Adolescents and young adults, especially minorities, are disproportionately affected by STDs. A number of factors may play a role in the high rates of STDs among minorities. Race and ethnicity are not risk factors but are risk markers that correlate with fundamental determinants of health, such as poverty, limited access to quality health care, illicit drug use, and living in communities with high prevalence of STDs.
STD Prevention Works
For more information on the link between HIV and other STDs, see accompanying fact sheet.
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