Addressing the Global Epidemic:
CDC's International Activities in HIV/AIDS Prevention

Advancing Prevention Research Worldwide and in the U.S.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has a research program dedicated to advancing biomedical and behavioral science that promotes HIV/AIDS prevention in the U.S. and worldwide. Research focuses on developing new tools and improving existing techniques to control the spread of HIV/AIDS and minimize consequences.

The World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (WHO/GPA) estimates that, worldwide, as many as 20 million people have been infected with HIV since the pandemic's onset, and each day 6,000 more become infected. Recognizing the urgency of the epidemic, CDC is committed to HIV/AIDS research within as well as outside American borders. To understand AIDS on a global level, research must address issues and conditions unique to different countries and communities within countries. Many developing countries severely affected by the epidemic lack the research capacity, public health infrastructure, and financial and human resources to respond to the epidemic. CDC's international research underscores the importance of developing and implementing diverse interventions to address singular issues among varied populations and to do so quickly and cost-effectively. Lessons learned abroad are applied in the U.S. -- because of global rapture, the techniques developed through CDC's international research program can also address the diverse needs and concerns of our population at home.

Cooperative Efforts Yield Prevention Benefits

Through collaborative agreements with governments of Cote d'Ivoire (Project RETRO-CI) and Thailand (HIV/AIDS Collaboration), CDC participates in studies designed to increase our understanding of the epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections and to facilitate prevention and care efforts in the host country and the United States. Specific research areas include:

The researchers of these international projects will present their findings in Vancouver. There are 13 abstracts from Cote d'Ivoire and 13 from Thailand. A list follows.

International Presentations in Vancouver



Do HIV Strain Differences have a Significant Effect on HIV Transmission and Epidemiology, Dale Hu.



Safety of and Adherence to Oral Zidovudine Administered in Late Pregnancy to HIV-1 Infected Pregnant Women in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Ehounou Ekpini.

HIV Seroincidence and STD Prevalence During an Intervention Study Among Female Sex Workers in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: Preliminary Findings, Virginie Ettiegne-Traore.

Acceptability and Feasibility of a Clinical Trial to Access the Efficacy of a Microbicide-Containing Vaginal Gel to Prevent HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Peter D. Ghys.

The Associations Between Cervico-Vaginal HIV-1 Shedding and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Immunosuppression, and Serum HIV-1 Viral Load in Female Sex Workers in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Peter D. Gays.

Prospective Cohort Study to Assess the Response to Therapy and Risk Factors for Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Children in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Ya Diul Mukadi.

The Effectiveness of Oral Zidovudine Administered in Late Pregnancy in Lowering Plasma and Cervovaginal HIV-1 Viral Load in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Stephan Wiktor.


Evaluation of an HIV Counseling and Testing Program for Pregnant Women in an Antenatal Clinic in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Lacina Diaby.

Diversity of HIV-1 in Cote d'Ivoire Using Analysis of Genetic Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Analyses Restriction Fragment, D Ellenberger.

Analysis of Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Cote d'Ivoire Using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Analyses, D. Ellenberger.

Spectrum of Disease and Risk Factors for Death Among HIV-Infected Patients Admitted to an Infectious Disease Unit in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Alison Grant.

Declining High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Men with Tuberculosis in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Alan E. Greenberg.

Respiratory Manifestations of HIV-Disease in Adults Admitted to a Pulmonary Medicine Service in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Sidibe Kassim.

Patient Eligibility and Acceptability of a Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Cotrimaxozole Prophylaxis to Reduce Mortality Among HIV-Infected Tuberculosis Patients in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, Madeleine Sassan-Morokr.



HIV-1 Positivity and Willingness to Participate in a Prospective Cohort of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Bangkok, Thailand, Dwip Kitayaporn.

The Evolution of HIV-1 Subtypes B and E in Heterosexuals and Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Thailand, 1992-1995, Timothy Mastro.

Declining Prevalence of Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Female Sex Workers (FSW), Chiang Rai, Thailand, Peter Kilmarx.

Clinical Presentations, Risk Category, and HIV-1 Subtypes B and E in 1,241 HIV/AIDS Patients in Thailand, Khanchit Limpakarianarat.

High Viral Load Predicts Perinatal HIV-1 Subtype E Transmission, Bangkok, Thailand, Nathan Shaffer.

Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Thailand, 1994-1995, Shambayi Subbarao.

HIV-1 Incidence and Follow-Up in a Prospective Cohort of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Bangkok, Thailand, Suphak Vanichseni.


Natural History and Mortality of Perinatal HIV-1 Infection, Bangkok, Thailand, Wanda Suteewarn.

Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission Among Women Seroconverting During Pregnancy, Bangkok, Thailand, Anuyat Roongpisuthipong.

Modified Roche Amplicor HIV-1 PCR for Perinatal Diagnosis, Thailand, Nathan Shaffer.

Feasibility of an HIV-1 Efficacy Trial among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Bangkok, Thailand, Thammnoon Vaniyapongs.



Couple Counseling and HIV Testing in Uganda: Four Years Experience at the AIDS Information Centre, Fulgentius Baryarama.

Response of Young People 15-19 to HIV Counseling and Testing in Uganda, Edmund Gumisiriza.

HIV Counseling and Testing: Resolved that Government/Public Resources for HIV Prevention in the Developing World Should not be Directed Toward the Provision of HIV Counseling and Testing Services, Mary Grace Alwano-Edyegy.